Tea is the second-most consumed drink with 165 million cups drunk in the UK every day!
Tea actually comes from the same plant – Camellia Sinensis. There are over 400 different varieties of the Camellia bush and over 3,000 varieties of tea. The growing and naming of tea can be likened to wine; both are grown from one bush, they are often named after their growing regions, and the differences in things like elevation, climate, soil and the skill of the tea master or wine producer result in the different characters of the liquor.
Herbal ‘teas’ on the other hand, such as Chamomile, Peppermint or Rooibos, are not actually teas at all. We refer to these as infusions because they come from herbs and flowers other than the Camellia bush. Most of our infusions are naturally caffeine free and they tend to relax, invigorate and/or aid healing.
The way tea leaves are processed determines whether they will be classified as white, green, oolong or black teas. The main difference between the many varieties of tea is how much oxidation the leaves are allowed to absorb during processing.
Although each method follows historical procedures, it is each tea master’s specific interpretation and skill that gives every single tea its unique quality.
Tea really is the most varied beverage on the planet!
Black tea currently accounts for over 95% of sales in the UK but it was originally produced out of necessity rather than taste. When traders first began exporting tea from China to Europe, many found the green tea leaves would lose their freshness on the long sea journey. Merchants cleverly fermented the leaves to lengthen preservation. They had unwittingly created a new variety with a different flavour.
Black tea is fully fermented. There are four basic steps – withering, rolling, fermenting and drying. The freshly plucked leaves are spread out to wither and then the leaves are bruised by rolling (to release the chemicals within the leaf).
The rolled leaves are then spread out again to oxidise (causing the leaves to turn from green to coppery red).
The level of oxidation will depend on the intention of the tea master. For the final step, the leaves are dried by heating them in an oven until the moisture content is reduced to 2-4%.
Black tea is typically robust and generally has the highest caffeine content. Some of the popular eteaket black teas include English Breakfast and Royal Earl Grey.
Oolong teas fall between black tea and green tea because they are only semi-fermented. The process is complex and differs between tea gardens so oolong teas can have a very wide array of flavours and aromas.
For the manufacture of oolongs, the leaves are withered in direct sunlight and occasionally tossed on bamboo trays to lightly bruise the edges and encourage oxidation. Once the tea is sufficiently oxidised, it is fired to stop any further oxidation. It is then hand-rolled and fired anywhere between 15-25 times to bring the moisture from the inside of the leaf to the outside and to give the leaf its unique flavour and character. The final character of the tea is determined by baking the tea one last time.
Most oolongs come from China or Taiwan (often referred to by its old Dutch name, Formosa). Oolongs are generally fragrant and full bodied and are widely drunk for their digestive benefits. Due to their smooth, complex flavours, oolong teas are often favoured by connoisseurs.
After the leaves are plucked, they are withered on bamboo trays. This allows the cells to weaken so moisture passes easily out of the leaf during the frying and drying stages. Without this step, moisture would stay in the leaves and the liquor would taste bitter.
The leaves are then quickly steamed or pan-fried to prevent any chance of oxidation by killing enzymes in the leaf. This process preserves many of the natural properties of the leaves, making green tea renowned as a healthy and enjoyable drink.
Next, the leaves are rolled to expose the moisture held deep within the leaves and then dried over heat (preferably charcoal). At the end of this process there should not be more than 4% moisture in the leaf.
Green tea is produced mainly in China and Japan (although we have discovered an exquisite green tea from Sri Lanka on our travels). Green teas typically infuse to a pale yellow-green liquor with a fresh, light taste.
White teas are the most rare and delicate of teas and undergo the least processing. New buds are picked from the tea bush in early spring when the young buds are still covered in silvery downy hairs.
They are picked before they contain chlorophyll so they don’t have the vegetal character associated with green tea. The buds are then withered to allow moisture to evaporate before they are dried (in the sun if possible).
The silvery appearance of the buds results in a pale, straw-coloured liquor with a subtle natural sweetness and an abundance of natural properties.
Rooibos, is a naturally uncaffinated herb from the North Western Cape of South Africa. The health benefits of rooibos rival those of ‘real’ teas, due to the high antioxidant content.
The green, needle-like leaves of the plant are cut and left to dry in the sun, turning a beautiful mahogany red.
HERB AND FRUIT INFUSIONS
The master of disguise, herbal tea, is not actually a tea at all – sneaky. They tend to relax, invigorate and aid healing – nature’s very own medicine cabinet. Made from a mixture of herbs, flowers and dried fruits, we’re not going to lie in that many have the appearance of potpourri. However, there’s nothing Nana’s bathroom about our range! By selecting only the finest infusions our herb and fruit teas are packed full of flavour, not quite giving you one of your five a day but definitely giving you a helping hand.
Our flowering teas are expertly hand-sewn by skilled artisans and blossom beautifully when steeped in hot water. We like to think of them as a performance in a pot, although we might need to get out more.
This is definitely the Lady GaGa of our teas, but it’s not all fur coat and no knickers. These incredibly beautiful and delicate teas have a fantastic subtle taste and are great as a bit of a treat.